Glossary of Terms
What's going into your body?
5-HTP- (5- Hydroxytryptoophan)- an amino acid that plays a role in the creation of serotonin and melatonin. It is often used as an antidepressant, a sleep aid, an appetite suppressant. It has also been shown to help reduce symptoms associated with PMS, headaches, and anxiety
AAKG (arginine alphaketoglutarate)- a compound (referred to in chemistry as a "salt") made from the combination of the amino acid arginine and alpha-ketoglutaric acid. It plays a role in the metabolism of nitric oxides and in the cellular production of energy.
Acai - a tall type of palm, the berries of which are considered powerful, nutritious metabolism boosters and fat burners. They are a significant source of antioxidants, amino acids, and Omega essential fatty acids.
Acerola- One of the most potent sources of natural vitamin C and bio-flavanoids. In addition to vitamin C, it also contains pro-vitamin A, vitamin B1, B2, B3, iron, phosphorous and calcium.
Acetyl L-Carnitine- an amino acid produced naturally in the body, Acetyl L-Carnitine contributes to your energy on a cellular level and promotes heart health and cognitive function. It can be used to treat a variety of afflictions, including age-related memory loss, nerve pain, and infertility.
Acidophilus (lactobacillus acidophilus)- a bacterium that occurs naturally in the human gastrointestinal tract, Acidophilus is considered to have probiotic properties, and may help the lactose intolerant handle dairy.
ALA (alpha lipoic acid) is an essential acid has antioxidant properties. It can reduce excess iron as well as reduce inflammation, stress levels, and the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Alanine- see L-Alanine
Aloe Vera- a species of succulent plant, Aloe is renowned for its rejuvenating, soothing, and healing effects on the skin. When taken internally, it may contribute to the treatment of diabetes and elevated blood lipids.
Amino Acids- molecules that link together in varying sequences to serve as the building blocks of proteins. There are 22 different arrangements, often called the "standard" amino acids, and nine of the standard amino acids are referred to as "essential" for humans as they cannot be created from other compounds and must be taken in as food. Amino acids are an important part of effective nutrition, providing for muscle growth, and energy production, as well as acting as precursors to various neurotransmitters.
Arginine- see L-Arginine
Arginine Ethyl Ester- a form of the amino acid arginine, which has been modified with an ethyl ester molecule for improved absorption. Arginine is a necessary precursor to the production of nitric oxide in your body, and so is often included in products aimed at increasing your vasodilation and general workout performance.
Aspartic Acid- a non-essential alpha amino acid (α-amino acid) that contributes to protein synthesis in the body. Its conjugate base, or salt, aspartate, also stimulates NMDA receptors in the brain.
Beef Protein- has the best amino acid profile, and high bioavailability. It is rich in the amino acid Alanine, a pivotal component of the structure of skeletal muscle cells, and is known to facilitate glucose metabolism, enhancing energy levels. Beef amino acids also enhance nitrogen retention and help build collagen to support your workouts.
Beta-Alanine- shown to increase the concentration of carnosine in muscles, decrease fatigue in athletes, and increase total muscular power output.
Biotin- a water-soluble B-complex vitamin, also known as vitamin H, coenzyme R, or vitamin B7. It plays a role in the synthesis of fatty acids and the amino acids isoleucine and valine, as well as in the production of cellular energy during aerobic respiration and in maintaining steady blood sugar levels. Is considered important in the strengthening of hair and nails, as well.
Black Cohosh- a plant in the buttercup family with a long history as a natural women's health supplement. It has anti-inflammatory properties and may promote healthy hormone balance and digestive health.
Borage- also known as starflower, this herb has a long history in traditional cuisine and medicine. It has been used to regulate the metabolism and the hormonal system, as well as treat respiratory infections.
Borage Oil - the seed oil of borage, containing the highest plant-based source of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA).
Boron- a metalloid with a toxicity in mammals similar to that of table salt, boron is essential to life. It is thought to support healthy bone formation and muscle growth, as well as proper cognition.
Boswellia- a tree producing fragrant resin, Boswellia is known particularly for its anti-inflammatory effects, and has a long history in traditional Indian (Ayurvedic) medicine. It has been used in West Africa to treat fever and gastrointestinal disorders, and is also considered helpful in treating asthma and depression.
Bromelain- an extract from the stems of pineapples with a long tradition is folk and alternative medicine due to its anti-inflammatory effects. It is a composed mainly of protein-digesting enzymes, and is available in some countries under the name 'Ananase'. It is useful in the healing of wounds and in the treatment of arthritis, as well as in muscle relaxation, cancer prevention, and fat loss.
Calcium- the chemical element with the symbol Ca, calcium is a soft grey alkaline metal essential for all life. It functions as the signal for various cellular processes, as well as the building of dense bones and strong teeth, muscle contraction, kidney function, and cardiovascular health.
Carnitine- see L-Carnitine
Carnosine - a dipeptide composed of two amino acids, carnosine is an antioxidant found naturally in muscles. It is often a part of general anti-aging therapy, as well as liver protection, and has been shown to retard cancer growth.
Cayenne- known in its powdered form as 'red pepper' or 'bird pepper', cayenne is a hot chilli pepper used in cuisine and as an herbal supplement. It is high in vitamin A, and contains vitamins B6, E, and C, as well as riboflavin, potassium, and manganese. It has the ability to enhance one's circulation, and has been used as an aphrodisiac for this reason, as well as its ability to increase endorphin levels.
Chitosan- derived from the shells of crustaceans, chitosan inhibits the uptake of fat.
Cholecalciferol- also known as vitamin D3, it has a structure similar to steroids such as testosterone.
Choline - usually grouped with the B-complex vitamins, choline is a water-soluble essential nutrient involved in many bodily functions. It plays a role in cell signalling, in the synthesis of cell membranes, and endurance athletes in particular run the risk of being choline deficient.
Chondroitin- a chondrin derivative, chondroitin is usually made from animal cartilage, and will enhance the health and flexibility of your joints by encouraging the flow of water and nutrients around them.
Chromium - a chemical element with the symbol Cr, chromium is a lustrous, hard metal, compounds of which, such as chromium picolinate, are required for sugar and lipid metabolism.
Chromium Picolinate - Though many studies remain heavily debated, this form of chromium has been shown to reduce insulin resistance, to have antidepressant effects, and to lead to reduced fat cravings.
Cissus Quadrangularis - a member of the grape family, this perennial plant is sometimes called Veldt Grape or Devil's Backbone, and has a long history as a medicinal plant. In siddha medicine, it is used as a tonic to help treat broken bones. It is also said to have antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, anthelmintic, antihemorrhoidal and analgesic activities. It has also been shown to be clinically effective in reducing obesity and its associated stresses.
Citrulline - an alpha amino acid first isolated from watermelon, citrulline works to relax blood vessels, improve blood flow, and plays a role in nitric oxide production. It can promote vasodilation as well as increases in strength energy.
CLA - found mainly in the meat and dairy products of ruminants, it has anticancer properties and plays a role in fatty acid composition. It can decrease total body fat while increasing lean body mass.
Cod Liver Oil - A fish extract, this oil is high in omega-3 fatty acids as well as vitamins A and D. It can reduce the pain and stiffness associated with arthritis and can enhance the health of bones, the heart, skin, nails, and wounded skin.
CoQ10- Coenzyme Q10 is an oil-soluble, vitamin-like substance present mainly in your mitochondria. It participates in cellular energy production and is therefore required by the organs with the higher energy demands, such as the heart, liver, and kidneys. It works as an antioxidant, may protect against cancer, can treat migraine headaches, supports cardiovascular health, and can contribute to your longevity.
Collagen - one of the body's most abundant proteins, collagen will support the health of your bones, connective tissue, and skin.
Cranberry- a group of evergreen stubs with fruit that is often marketed as a 'superfood' due to its nutrient-dense, anti-carcinogenic, and antioxidant features. It can provide possible benefits to the cardiovascular, urinary, and immune systems.
A staple of the bodybuilding and fitness world since 1992, creatine is known for its ability to prolong muscle endurance and improve performance on the gym or the field. Your muscle uses ATP (Adenosine Tri-Phosphate) for muscle energy. Once it is used as energy, it loses a phosphate molecule and ATP becomes ADP (Adenosine Di-Phosphate.) Creatine resupplies phosphates to ADP, turning it back into ATP, which in turn supplies more useable energy to your muscles, and the cycle continues until your creatine is used up. Creatine comes in different forms:
- Creatine Monohydrate: One of the most widely used performance supplements on the market, creatine has been the subject of over 200 studies. These studies have surmised definite positive effects for muscle building, enhanced cellular energy capacity, and reduced muscle fatigue.* Beyond its muscle-building and performance effects, creatine has been suggested to support fat loss and have positive effects on overall health.* While different forms of creatine are developed, for many powerlifters, bodybuilders and athletes creatine monohydrate remains the standard, a tried and tested form of creatine that works.
- Creatine Ethyl Ester- *Creatine Ethyl Ester or CEE is a membrane permeable form of creatine that theoretically can enter the cells without having to use the "typical" creatine transporter molecules.*
- Creatine Ethyl Ester HCL (CEE) is creatine monohydrate with an ester attached. Esters are organic compounds that are formed by esterification - the reaction of carboxylic acid and alcohols. Users are reported to gain substantial increases in strength and muscle mass, with none of the gastrointestinal discomfort or water bloating normally associated with the monohydrate form.* Recommended dosages range from as little as one to three grams per day with no "loading" phase, as typically prescribed for the monohydrate form.* Creatine monohydrate is semi-lipopholic (which means it inefficiently uses fat as a transport mechanism).* The esterification of substances increases their lipopholic abilities, leading to the conclusion that esterified creatine will use fat more efficiently to permeate the cell wall and have greater benefits upon cellular function than creatine monohydrate alone.
- Di-Creatine Malate: A highly soluble creatine salt thought to provide a greater increase in creatine bioavailability over regular creatine monohydrate.* Quite simply, this compound is creatine bound to malic acid
Curcumin- a component of the spice turmeric, curcumin can provide pain relief at high doses (roughly two grams taken daily), and can inhibit blood clotting. It has had its place in traditional Indian Ayurvedic medicine for hundreds of years, and has been shown to have anti-carcinogenic properties.
Cysteine- see L-Cysteine
Dandelion- Providing support to your healthy digestion, dandelion acts as a diuretic that can help with weight loss, reduce inflammation, and improve your liver function.
Deer Antler Velvet - harvested without harming the animal, this velvet is rich in calcium, zinc, magnesium, as well as a impressive profile of amino acids. It also contains glucosamine, chondroitin, and collagen for the health of your bones and connective tissue.
DHEA- dehydroepiandrosterone is the major steroidal secretion of the adrenal glands, and is the most abundant steroid in humans. It has a broad range of effects and roles in the human body, effecting strength, memory, and in some cases, treating infertility.
Dimethylamylamine- also known as methylhexanamine or DMAA, this dietary supplement is a vasoconstrictor that is often marketed as a stimulant and a thermogenic activator.
Dimethylxanthine- also known as theophylline, this drug is used for the treatment of respiratory diseases, but it bears a structural similarities to caffeine and so has certain stimulant, anti-inflammatory, and diuretic effects. It can improve the function of your heart and increase your blood pressure.
Dopa- see L-Dopa
Echinacea- This powerful plant substance has been used to treat and prevent colds and the flu. Echinacea stimulates the immune system to help fight infections and help to heal wounds or skin problems.
Evening Primrose Oil – This oil is found in the plant's sends and can be used to treat itching that can be attributed to eczema and dermatitis. Evening primrose oil can also be used to ease breast tenderness as a result of PMS. In foods, evening primrose oil is used as a source of essential fatty acids.
Fenugreek- This herb contains plant chemicals that are similar to the female sex hormone estrogen. Fenugreek contains hormone precursors that increase milk supply while breastfeeding. It has also been shown to calm symptoms of PMS and menopause while increase sexual desire in women.
Fiber- Actually is a term that refers to a type of carbohydrate that cannot be digested or absorbed by human beings. Present in fruits, vegetables, grains and legumes, Fiber has an extraordinary cleansing effect on your digestive system.
Fish Oil - This omega-3 rich oil is made from mackerel, herring, tuna, halibut, salmon, and seal blubber. It may used to support normal, healthy immune function, healthy vision and joints. Flax Seed Oil- Used to support fat burning and overall health, Flax Seed Oil is an incredible source of fiber as well as omega-3 fattyacids. As an antioxidant, Flax Seed Oil supports healthy brain function and can dramatically help your diet and weight loss efforts.
Folic Acid- As a member of the B vitamin family, Folic Acid helps the body form healthy new cells. It has been shown to increase brain function and can reduce the risk of birth defects for pregnant women. Folic Acid is naturally found in leafy greens, fruits, dried beans, and nuts.
GABA- Short for Gamma- Aminobutryic Acid is an amino acid that has a special function. Unlike other amino acids, GABA is not a protein builder, but a neurotransmitter that helps nerves communicate with the brain. Think of it as the envelope holding the message from your nerves to your brain, and it can also helpsupport a healthy sleep cycle and fat loss.
Gamma-Linolenic Acid- Also known as GLA, Gamma-Linolenic Acid is an omega-6 fatty acid. Omega-6 is classified as an essential fatty acid because the body requires it for healthy brain function, general bone health, and for skin and hair growth. Because the body cannot produce EFAs, you must ingest them through food or with supplements.
Garlic – This wonder plant has been used for thousands of years as food and medicine. Garlic can be used to prevent heart disease, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and to boost the immune system. Rich is free-radical destroying antioxidants, Garlic has been shown to help ward off colds.
Genistein- Found naturally in soybeans and other soy products, genistein is a isoflavone that not only functions as as an antioxidant, but it also can simulate estrogen in the body and has been shown to have anticancer properties.
Ginger Root- This miracle root has been used in Eastern medicine for thousands of years, and for good reason. Ginger has been used to treat a variety of ills including arthritis, diarrhea, and the nausea and vomiting associated with pregnancy, chemotherapy, and motion sickness.
Ginkgo Biloba- Also known as the 'brain herb', Ginkgo Biloba has been used to treat blood disorders as well as enhance memory. Ginkgo Biloba is the oldest living tree species and is made up of flavonoids which protect the nerves, blood vessels, and heart muscles while terpenoids improve blood flow by dilatingblood vessels and reducing the stickiness of platelets.
Glucosamine- This naturally occurring substance plays an important role in the cartilage building process. Glucosamine is typically paired with Chondrotin to treat symptoms of osteoarthritis and on its own can be used to help treat inflammatory bowel disease.
Glucuronolactone- This naturally occurring metabolite is believed to help in stripping the body of harmful substances while providing an instant energy boost.
Glutamine- As one of the most abundant amino acid in the body, Glutamine is helpful in wound-healing and recovery from illness. Glutamine has also been shown to support a healthy immune system and overall brain function and digestion.
Glutathione- see L-Glutathione
Glycine- As one of the smallest of amino acids, Glycine works to build proteins and convert glucose into energy. Glycine helps you maintain a healthy central nervous and digestive systems. Glycine also helps regulate blood sugar levels.
Goji berry- Packed with 18 amino acids, beta carotene, and iron, Goji berry is rich in protein and anti-oxidants. Goji has been used to stimulate the immune system, improve sight, protect the liver, improve circulation, and increased longevity.
Goldenseal- This small plant with a single hairy stem is one of the most popular herbs in the United States. Often combined with echinacea in cold remedies, Goldenseal treats skin problems, digestive disorders while getting an immune boost.
Grape Seed- Grapes contain oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes or OPCs, which act as powerful antioxidants. Along with OPCs, grape seed contains concentrated amounts of Vitamin E, flavonoids, linoleic acid.
Green Tea- Made from the unfermented leaves, Green Tea contains the highest concentration of antioxidants called polyphenols. Green tea is an effective diuretic, an astringent, and works to improve heart health. Green tea can also be used to treat gas, regulate body temperature and blood sugar.
Guarana- The fruit of Guarana is small, bright-red and contains black seeds. This stimulant is similar to coffee in that it quickens perceptions, delays sleep, and impairs the appetite. Guarana increases mental alertness, supports endurance and performance.
Guggulsterone- The resin, guggulsterone, is derived from the Guggul plant and has been used to support a healthy metabolism and skin complexion. Guggulsterone supports optimal thyroid gland function that produces important hormones that regulate the metabolism of fat.
HMB- Also known as beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate, HMB plays a part in protein synthesis. HMB has been shown to promote muscle mass and support muscle recovery. When combined with creatine, HMB has been able to build bigger muscles.
Hoodia Gordonii- Using Hoodia Gordonii can help regulate your appetite and thirst during long working expeditions. Hoodia Gordonii contains P57, a molecule that works by mimicking the effect that glucose has on appetite, slowing cravings to a crawl.
Hordenine- Although classified as a stimulant that can help with weight loss, Hordenine is a natural compound can be found in grasses and grains. It can also be used to fight off infections such as staph.
Horny Goat Weed – This aphrodisiac has been used for thousands of years to restore sexual fire and boost erectile function. Horny Goat Weed helps prevent fatigue and promote wellness and a healthy adrenal system.
Hydroxycitric Acid- A popular ingredient in commercial weight loss preparations, HCA also known as hydroxycitric acid is derived from the dried rind of the garcinia cambogia fruit. HCA also supports serotonin levels and may shift fuel usage in the body from carbohydrates to fats.
Inositol - a chemical compound, inositol is a carbohydrate that plays an important role as the structural basis for many messengers in your body. Among other things, it contributes to the breakdown of fat and the reduction of blood cholesterol.
Isomaltulose- also known as Palatinose, this sugar substitute is fully absorbed as glucose and fructose, but the glucose enters the bloodstream slowly, avoiding the peaks and crashes often associated with glucose and insulin spikes. This means it is a more balanced and prolonged source of energy than othersugar substitutes. It also provides for improved fat breakdown, encouraging your body to bun fat reserves for energy to increase endurance.
Iron- a key mineral, iron plays vital roles in many processes in your body. It helps your blood cells carry oxygen to your tissues, thus promoting energy levels. Enhanced levels of iron may also contribute to bolstering your immune system, promoting cellular growth, maximizing your protein metabolism, and maintaining the health of your connective tissues. Jojoba - a shrub also known as coffeeberry and wild hazel, jojoba is often used for the liquid wax in its seeds, commonly called jojoba oil. This oil is a long, straight-chain wax ester with applications as an anti-fungal or as topical therapy for hair and skin.
Isoleucine- see L-Isoleucine
Kelp - a large seaweed that grows in shallow oceans, kelp has a high concentration of iodine and helps inhibit fat absorption.
Kola Nut- the nut of the kola tree contains caffeine, as it is part of the cocoa family. It can ease hunger pangs and expand bronchial air passages.
Korean Ginseng - a type of ginseng native to Asia, it has been used to treat diabetes and contribute to human brain development. It has a long history of being recognized for its myriad palliative powers.
Kre-Alkalyn- a patented form of creatine, Kre-Alkalyn is designed to support workout performance, endurance, strength, and intensity. It has a higher Ph than other forms of creatine, is easier to digest and absorb, and requires no loading phase
Kukui nut oil- extracted from the candlenut, or kuku'i, this oil makes skin softer. It is absorbed quickly without blocking pores.
L-Arginine- an amino acid, Arginine aids in Nitric Oxide production and has anti-catabolic effects. It decreases tissue regrowth times and can be used by the body to manufacture Ornithine, which stimulates the Human Growth Hormone.
L-Carnitine- An ammonium compound required for the transport of fatty acids into the mitochondria so that the lipids may be broken down and used to generate metabolic energy. In this way it supports enhanced fat loss and improves workout performance.
L-Isoleucine- is an alpha amino acid, and is classified as 'essential' as humans can't synthesize it and so must obtain it from their diet. It is one of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) essential to your muscles, and can promote muscle recovery after exercise, boost energy, and preserves lean muscle mass and glycogen levels (and therefore, extend endurance). It also helps the body make use of other amino acids in your system.
L-Lysine-is an alpha amino acid, and is classified as 'essential' as humans can't synthesize it and so must obtain it from their diet. It plays a role in your body's ability to absorb and retain calcium and is vital to protein synthesis. It is also important to your body's production of hormones, antibodies, and enzymes.
L-Ornithine- a central part of the urea cycle, which disposes of excess nitrogen in the system.
L-Taurine- an organic acid often found in animal tissue, taurine has a role in many fundamental processes in your body. It is essential to proper cardiovascular function and to the development and function of skeletal muscle and the nervous system. It is useful to such processes as cell hydration and protein synthesis.
L- Theanine- an amino acid found commonly in tea, theanine is thought to promote calmness and relaxation by increasing alpha brain wave activity It promotes alterness, focus, and energy, and is a precursor to neurotransmitters involved in memory retention, learning, and mood.
L-Tyrosine- a non-essential amino acid, meaning it can be synthesized by the human body. It can help offset or delay the effects on intense training, and is part of the reactions that create dopamine and other hormones. It will support your metabolism, enhance your mental focus, and push back the onset of fatigue, both physical and mental.
L-Valine- an alpha amino acid, valine is classified as 'essential' as humans can't synthesize it and so must obtain it from their diet. Along with leucine and isoleucine, valine is a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) that plays a vital role in muscle growth and repair, as well as energy levels.
L-Glutathione- a non-essential amino acid, meaning it can be synthesized by the human body, glutathione acts as a powerful antioxidant and detoxifier. It if found mainly in the heart, liver, and muscle tissue, and it plays a supportive role in boosting your immune function.
L-Leucine- a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA), leucine is categorized as 'essential', since the human body can't synthesize it and it must be ingested, usually is a component of protein. It is found mainly in the liver, fatty tissue, and muscle tissue, and it is the only dietary amino acid proven beyond a doubt to stimulate muscle protein synthesis and prevent catabolism. It will supply energy in situations of stress, will maintain your glycogen levels, and help maintain your nitrogen balance.
L-Methionine- is an alpha amino acid, and is classified as 'essential' as humans can't synthesize it and so must obtain it from their diet. It is water-soluble, and plays a role as a precursor to protein synthesis in your body. It is also considered to have antioxidant properties.
L-Alanine- a non-essential alpha amino acid, meaning it can be synthesized by the human body, alanine plays a role in protein synthesis, and in proper blood sugar metabolism. Its presence in your body will also boost your healthy immune function.
L-Cysteine- a non-essential alpha amino acid, meaning it can be synthesized by the human body, cysteine is also found in many high-protein foods. It is a precursors to the formation of other amino acids in your body, and thus plays a supporting role in maintaining your nervous system, your immune function, your vision, metabolism, and your muscle development.
L-Dopa- made from the amino acid L-tyrosine, L-Dopa is an important precursor to neurotransmitters such as dopamine and epinephrine (adrenaline). It can cross the blood-brain barrier and plays supporting role in enhancing your motivation, sleep, mood, focus, memory, and learning ability. The most potent natural source of L-Dopa is found in Mucuna Pruriens, or the velvet bean.
Lecithin - a generic term for dark fatty substances found in plant and animal tissues, which can be used as emulsifiers or lubricants. It wholly metabolized by humans and is non-toxic, and plays a role in promoting healthy organ function, brain function, and fat metabolism.
Liquorice Root- a member of the legume family, liquorice is a strong-tasting plant with antioxidant properties. It also promotes a healthy digestive tract and adrenal system.
lipotropics- compounds that help break down fat during metabolism and aide in the detoxification of the liver.
Longjack (Eurycoma Longifolia) - also known as pasak bumi and penawar pahit, this plant has a long history as an aphrodisiac, and is often included in products designed to enhance testosterone levels and male sexual health.
Lutein - an antioxidant found in green leafy vegetables, lutein is especially important to the human retina, where it contributes to protecting the eye.
Lycopene - a bright red carotene lacking an vitamin A activity, lycopene is a non-essential nutrient that accumulates in the liver and adrenal glands. It is considered an antioxidant and a potential anti-carcinogen, protecting particularly against prostate cancer. It will support your cells, your immune function and your overall good health.
Magnesium- a chemical element with the symbol Mg, magnesium is a key mineral found virtually everywhere throughout the human body and is a support for a wide array of biochemical reactions. Supplements containing magnesium can enhance fat burning, muscle gains, and overall good health.
Manganese- a chemical element with the symbol Mn, manganese ions work in your body to support antioxidant effects as well as several enzymatic functions. It is required in trace amounts by all living organisms and contributes variously to the overall efficiency of your energy production and nutrient absorption, as well as the health of your nervous system, your bones, and your skin.
Mangosteen - the common name for the purple mangosteen, this tropical evergreen tree produces a sweet fruit. It has a long tradition in folk medicine as a treatment for damaged skin, dysentery, and urinary tract infections, and it is known to have anti-inflammatory properties. It is also a powerful antioxidant, often paired with goji berries or pomegranate to enhance its powerful health benefits.
Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs)- medium-chain fatty acids, MCTs are an easily absorbed energy source. They have also been suggested to enhance your metabolic function, and have less calories per gram than other fats.
Melatonin - a hormone that circulates naturally in plants, animals, and microbes, melatonin levels vary in your body throughout the day, thus allowing for the proper timing of several biological functions. It is biosynthesized from the essential amino acid typtophan, with serotonin as a side-product. Supplementing with melatonin will enhance the quality of your sleep patterns and reduce your recovery time from stress.
Milk Thistle - a flowering plant of the daisy family, milk thistle is widely researched for its possible medical uses and therapeutic properties. It is most commonly used to support healthy liver function, to flush toxins from the body, and as an antioxidant.
Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) - is a compound sometimes known as methyl sulfone or dimethyl sulfone, and is considered relatively inert, chemically. It is primarily used for supporting healthy cartilage, as well as balancing hormone levels, acting as an antioxidant, and promoting healthy skin and hair.
N-Acetylcysteine (NAC)- a pharmaceutical drug and nutritional supplement, NAC is a more stable, more water soluble version of L-cysteine, and is marketed most often as an antioxidant
Niacin - also known as vitamin B3, niacin is an organic compound that is considered one of the essential human nutrients. It plays a role in various functions, such as that of the nervous system, the immune system, and the cardiovascular system. It helps the body break down fats, carbs, and proteins, and supports healthy cholesterol levels.
Nitric Oxide - also known as nitrogen monoxide is a binary molecule with the chemical formula NO. In humans, it is an important signalling molecule to many, many processes in the body and acts as a powerful vasodilator. It promotes blood and oxygen flow in the body to enhance endurance and muscle growth.
Ornithine- See L-Ornithine
Oolong Tea- This partially oxidized tea falls in between the range of green and black tea, and can be used to treat digestive disorders, fight tooth decay, and can help reduce cholesterol.
Pantothenic Acid – This acid is actually vitamin B5, which can be found in plants and animal products. Pantothenic acid is responsible for the production of red blood cells and adrenal hormones. It is promotes muscular energy when supplemented.
Phenibut – The GABA byproduct supports nerve function and sound sleep. Phenibut works to boost overnight recovery following workouts as well as boosting mood.
Phenylalanine- As an essential amino acid, Phenylalanine is essential to your health, but isn't produced by your body. Usually, the body converts phenylalanine to tyrosine which then can be used to make proteins, brain chemicals, norepinephrine, and thyroid hormones. Phenylalanine can be used to treat chronic pain and depression.
Pomegranate- This ancient fruit is rich in antioxidants, and can support elevated nitric oxide production. Pomegranate can also be useful in encouraging healthy blood flow.
Potassium – This very important mineral is necessary for the proper function of all cells, tissues and organs in the human body. Potassium is also an electrolyte meaning that it conducts electricity in the body. Potassium deficiency as well as high blood pressure can be treated with potassium supplementation.
A biochemical compound made up of chains of amino acids called polypeptides. An essential part of any animal’s diet, proteins participate in virtually every cellular process. Many act as catalytic enzymes that trigger reactions and are essential to the process of building and repairing muscle
- Whey Protein- Created as a byproduct of cheese production, whey is usually both the cheapest form of protein. It is also absorbed by the muscles very quickly, making it an ideal option immediately before or after workouts, in order fight off catabolism and promote growth.
- Micellar Casein Protein -longer-digesting proteins derived from milk. These proteins digest over several hours, and as such are often taken before bedtime.
- Soy Protein- Digested slower than whey but faster than casein, Soy is good alternative to proteins derived from dairy products
- Egg Albumen- made from egg whites, egg albumen protein is high in NO2-boosting arginine, but is usually found in smaller quantities because it is generally more expensive than whey or casein.
Pyruvate- This organic acid is found in many foods including red apples, cheese, and wine and can support your energy during competition. Pyruvate is responsible for starting up the Kreb's cycle. The Kreb's cycle is process in which ATP produced. ATP is like fuel for your muscle during strenuous exercise. Pyruvate is also useful for optimizing your calorie burn as well as protein and glucose transportation.
Quercetin- Usually found in the flavonoids of red wine, tea, and apple, Quercitin acts as antioxidant. When paired with bromelain, quercetin absorption increases in the body.
R-ALA – Also known as R-Alpha Lipoic Acid, R-ALA is believed to resemble insulin and promotes the removal of glucose from the blood stream. This great energy and weight loss booster uses ingested carbohydrates for fuel and discourages storage in the form of fat.
Raspberry Ketones- This naturally occurring compound is responsible for the aroma of red raspberries. Although, it can be used in perfumes and cosmetics, Raspberry Ketones have been shown to be an effective fat burner. Raspberry Ketones encourage fat metabolism and sustained energy.
Red Yeast Rice- Red Yeast Rice is the result of yeast grown on rice and has been shown to have cholesterol-lowering properties. Red Yeast Rice promotes increase circulation.
Resveratrol- This polyphenol occurs naturally in the skin of red grapes and other berries and plants. Resveratrol works as an antioxidant for age defying qualities as well as supporting healthy cardiovascular functions.
Rhodiola – Also known as Rhodiola Rosea, Rhodiola has significant stress blasting properties. Rhodiola supports you through stress by stimulating the production of neurotransmitters like norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin.
Riboflavin – A member of the B vitamin family, Riboflavin can be found in milk, meat, eggs, nuts, and green vegetables. Riboflavin can be used to treat riboflavin deficiency, migraine headaches, and muscle cramps. Riboflavin also has energy and immune system boosting properties.
Rose Hips – This member of the rose family is high in vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K, pectin, beta-carotene and bio-flavonoids; all of which provide antioxidant and immune system support.
Salmon Oil – This fish oil is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which are essential for optimal body functioning. The omega-3s in salmon oil can also contribute to improvements in workouts and decrease recovery times.
Saw Palmetto- Made from the berries of small palm trees, Saw Palmetto contains several forms of fatty acid, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol. Saw Palmetto has been shown to promote overall prostate health and is popular with men over the age of 50.
Selenium- Naturally found in meats, brazil nuts, and fish, Selenium has been shown to act as a precursor to antioxidant production while supporting men's sexual health. Selenium also offers thyroid support.
Sesamin- Extracted from sesame oil, sesamin has been shown to support healthy muscle tone and weight management. Sesamin users have reported an increase in built muscle and fat burned.
Shark Cartilage- Made from the dried and powdered cartilage of a shark, Shark Cartilage is packed wit calcium to promote overall joint health.
Spirulina- Spirulina is a form of blue-green algae which contains hundreds of vitamins and minerals for your overall health as well as for immune system function and detoxification of the body.
St. John's Wort- St. John's Wort is a plant based substance that has anti-inflammatory properties is applied to the skin to help heal wounds and burns.
Stevia- Extracted from the leaves of stevia rebaudiana, Stevia is an alternative sweetener that can be used in the place of sugar.
Strontium- While found naturally in your bones, Strontium can be supplemented to make it available to the body for direct use and for long term bone health.
Synephrine- The adrenergic amine, synephrine stimulates beta-3 receptors allowing for the release of adrenaline and noreadrenaline. Synephrine is used commonly for weight loss and is a popular alternative to ephedrine.
Taurine- see L-Taurine
Theanine- see L-Theanine
Theobromine- Theobromine is an alkaloid found in cocoa and chocolate, and works as an energy booster that can be substituted for caffeine.
Thiamine- A member of the thiamine family, thiamine can be found in yeast, cereal, grains, and beans. Thiamine has been show to improve your immune system function while promoting healthy digestion and circulation.
Tri-Creatine Malate- Just as the name alludes, Tri-Creatine Malate is a creatine compound that contains three creatine monohydrate. In conjunction with malic acid, tri-creatine malate can be used to promote lean body mass, muscle strength, endurance, and explosiveness.
Tribulus – Also known as tribulus terrestris, tribulus is a vine plant that has been shown to support healthy muscle development and sexual function. Tribulus also works towards healthy energy levels and shorter recovery times.
Valerian- Valerian root has been a widely used sleep aid for centuries. Valerian has been show to lower stress levels, calm you, and ease you into a restful night's sleep without the risk of dependence or grogginess of chemical sleep aids.
Vandyl Sulfate- This compound is derived from vanadium, and can play a role in helping to regulate blood sugar and supports muscle cell glucose uptake. Vandryl Sulfate helps to get more protein, amino acids, and carbohydrates directly into your muscles.
Vitamin A- A fat-soluble vitamin, Vitamin A helps to maintain healthy skin and teeth. Vitamin A occurs naturally in eggs, meat, cheese, and cod. Vitamin A can have positive affects on vision.
Vitamin B- A water soluble vitamin, Vitamin B helps to boost your immune system and help with your digestion of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Vitamin naturally occurs in foods such as tuna, brazil nuts, bananas, potatoes, and avocados.
Vitamin B12- A water soluble vitamin, Vitamin B12 can be found in foods like eggs, meats, poultry, and shellfish. Vitamin B12 helps promote a healthy metabolism leading to an increase in weight loss and muscle building.
Vitamin B6- A water soluble vitamin, Vitamin B6 plays an important role in the metabolism of protein and carbohydrates. Vitamin B6 can be found in grains, chickens, eggs, and fish. Vitamin B6 aids in the production of insulin and supports your immune system.
Vitamin C- A water soluble vitamin, Vitamin C is an obvious solution to Vitamin C deficiency, but it is a very popular immune system booster. Vitamin C also works as an energy booster.
Vitamin D- A fat-soluble vitamin, Vitamin D is most commonly derived from sunlight, and can be found naturally in cod liver oil, salmon, and fortified milk. Vitamin D is important for your body's ability to absorb calcium and promote strong bones. Vitamin D also works to support an elevated mood.
Vitamin E- A fat-soluble vitamin, Vitamin E fights free radicals as well as fatigue. Vitamin E can be found in bee pollen and royal jelly, and in smaller amounts in green leafy vegetables. Vitamin E also works to support the immune system and can be used to burn fat and improve complexion.
Vitamin K- A fat-soluble vitamin, Vitamin K can be found in foods like cabbage, spinach, and cauliflower. Vitamin K works to promote bone health and supports normal blood clotting.
Wazy Maize- Waxy Maize is a healthy carbohydrate source which has an optimal absorption rate. Waxy Maize works by bypassing the stomach and delivering nutrients to where they are needed. White Willow- This natural analgesic has been used for thousands of years to reduce fever, inflammation, headaches,and pain. The bark of white willow contains salicin which is similar to aspirin.
Yerba Mate- This popular South American tea also goes by llex paraguariensis. Yerba mate is made from the leaves of the holly tree and works as an alternative source of caffeine. Yerba mate offers an energy boost and has antioxidant properties.
Yohimbe- sold most commonly as an over-the-counter aphrodisiac, yohimbe is a psychoactive plant that increases blood flow, and therefore endurance and energy. It is also known to have antioxidant effects and to promote fat loss.
Zinc - a metallic chemical element with the symbol Zn, zinc is an essential mineral vital to your good health. It plays an active role in your ability to absorb nutrients, as well as in the functions of your liver and your immune system.
Zinc Monomethione Asparate (ZMA)- a natural testosterone booster and bodybuilding supplement, ZMA is a combination of zinc, magnesium, and vitamin B6, all of which are important in several biological processes. It is known to support restful sleep and increased levels of testosterone have been linked with enhanced muscle gains and fat loss.